Minimum soil disturbance is the basic principle of CA which aims at improving soil physical and chemical properties, reduce soil compaction, water loss and erosion and establish satisfactory crop stand. This can be achieved by minimum tillage, zero tillage and stubble mulch tillage practices.
- Minimum tillage is a group of field preparation methods which reduces the physical manipulation of soil. It is aimed at reduction of tillage to the minimum necessary that ensures a good seed bed, rapid germination, a satisfactory crop stand and favorable growing conditions.
- Zero tillage is the technique of conservational tillage where primary tillage is completely avoided and secondary tillage is restricted to the row zones where seeds are sown.
- Stubble mulch tillage is the technique where a mulch crop is grown during the fallow period and incorporated into the soil or the stubbles of previous crop are uprooted and spread over the soil surface.
- While implementing the practices for minimum soil disturbance, the use of herbicides and pesticides is mandatory in order to reduce the infestation of weed and chance of infections.